Monday, March 22, 2010
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Thursday, March 18, 2010
Putra Nilai diwakili oleh Pengarah Eksekutif, En Mazlan Ma'arof, manakala pihak Uzbektourism diwakili oleh En Alisher H. Shamsiev, Ketua Jabatan Perhubungan dan Pelaburan Antarabangsa.
Saturday, February 20, 2010
Religious tour in
Kukeldash madrassah (XVI c) The grand 16th c. Madrassah has domed courtyard. Now the building is returned to service as an Islamic school. Beside it is the tiny 15th c. Juma mosque.
Navoi Theatre - by 1940, Soviet planners had decided a theatre would greatly enhance an area known as the Drunken Bazaar for its wine-soaked market. Japanese prisoners of war completed construction in 1947.
You will be shown as well the medieval center of Tashkent, Hasti Imam square and visit there the Mausoleum of Kafal Shashi, a mystical poet and interpreter of Koran of the 10th century, who later was worshiped as a Saint.
Also, you'll see the functioning Barakhan Madrassah, which accommodates the Clerical Board of Central Asian Moslems, and its famous Library, with over 30.000 books, 3500 manuscripts and the precious sample of the Holy Koran, written by the fourth Caliph Osman and bearing stains of his blood on its pages.
After a short overview of the present-day
Breakfast at the hotel. Transfer (289 km, 4 hours) to
Also, you visit the tremendous Bibi Khanum Mosque, which was built upon Tamerlane's order to symbolize the power of Allah. In its yard you'll see the massive stone book-holder, which, as legend goes, was once used for the Holy Book which is now kept in
Breakfast at the hotel. You start by attending the
Then, you visit the Tomb of Tamerlane, Guri Amir Mausoleum, which also contains the tomb of Mir Seiid Bereke, Tamerlane's spiritual tutor.
After lunch you are taken 12 km north from
Then, you go to see the Mausoleum of Khodja Daniar or Saint Daniel, a prophet of the Old Testament. This holy place is recognized by Islam, Christianity and Judaism as one of eminent pilgrimage destinations. Overnight in
Breakfast at the hotel. Full day city sightseeing tour. The places to be visit:
Bibi Khanum mosque (XIVc) built by Timur to be biggest mosque at time. Architect, craftsmen & painters built it for the period of 5 years. Gur Amir mausoleum (XV c) Timurids dynastic burial vault. A unique monument of arhitecture with blue ribbed tessellated dome
Hodja Akhrar mosque & madrassah between 1630 and 1635 Bukharan vizier Nadir Divanbegi incorporated the funerary mosque built by Akhrar's sons into a large madrassah. South of the madrassah is the ornate Khodja Akhrar mosque (17th-20th centuries). Overnight in Samarqand.
Breakfast at the hotel. Transfer to
ARK Fortress (VI - XIX c) - in middle ages it was a whole town with the emirs house, with wives, mosques mint place, government institutes, store rooms, a prison and a square for public executions.
Bolo Khauz Mosque (1712) Mosque Near the Pool.
Samanid's mausoleum (IX - X c) - it was the first building in Central Asia constructed from backed bricks in the shape of a cube covered by a dome with unrepeatable geometrical brickwork design - a masterpiece of world architecture.
Chashma Ayub Mausoleum - (a place where Job the Prophet once worked wonders) - the original construction dates from the 12th century rule of Karakhanid Arslan Khan, the earliest surviving dome was raised by Amir Temur in 1380 over the existing tomb chamber.
Poikalon (XII - XVI c) architectural ensemble in the center of old Bukhara - includes the cathedral mosque "Masjidi Kalon", "Miri Arab" madrasah and the highest minaret (46 m) at that time in the Orient.
Lyabi - Haus (XVI - XVII c) - a complex with Nodir - Devon Begi madrasahs big pool surrended by trees
Ulugbek Madrassah 1417 was the earliest of three commissioned by the enlightened Timutid ruler (the other two stand in
Abdul Aziz Khan Madrassah (1652), glittering in mercifully unrestored 17th century glory Tim Abdullakhan was built in 1577 and was one of the most elegant trade halls in
Trading Domes consists of three trading centers: Tok-i-Zargaron (1570) - Jeweler's Bazaar, Tok-i-Tilpak Furushon - Cap Maker's Bazaar, Tok-i-Sarrafon - Moneychanger's Bazaar.
Magoki Attori - in 937 the four-pillared mosque was burn the ground in a city-wide fire and in the 12th century the present mosque was erected, from which the focus of the mosque, the original southern portal remains.
We will organise for you folklore evening in Nodir Dewon Begi Medressa. Overnight in
Breakfast at the hotel. Early in the morning you go out of
Then, you visit Chor Bakr, a complex of tombstones, one of which belongs to the famous founder of Djuybar Hajjis, Abu Bakr Saad, the grandson of the outstanding Bukhara Sufi Islam Djuybari (16 century AD).After completing your excursions you depart for
Departure home with great memories and experiences of
Thursday, February 11, 2010
Tuesday, February 9, 2010
Day 1: Arrival to
Morning departure by train to
A full day to explore the beauty and history of
Morning tour in
After breakfast you start the tour from the Ulugbek Observatory, and then the Shakhi-Zinda ensemble of Mausoleums, this unusual necropolis has monuments of the 14th and 15th centuries. Visit the great central
Day 8: Departure from
Departure. Transfer to airport for flight home (KLIA).
Uzbekistan has well preserved relics from the time when Central Asia was a center of empire, education, and trade. Uzbekistan cities including Samarkand, Bukhara, Khiva, Shakhrisabz and Tashkent live on in the imagination of the West as symbols of oriental beauty and mystery.
The culture of the nations found in the territory of Uzbekistan has a very rich history. In the 8th century the armies of an Arab caliph invaded Mawarannahr ("The Land Beyond River"), the territory between the Amudarya river, the Syrdarya river and the land of Khorasan lying to the south of the Amudarya river. This conquest brought a new religion that had risen in Saudi Arabia called Islam. At the same time, there was fire-worship and other religions such as Buddhism, Judaism and Christianity. Since then Islam has dominated far beyond this region and became an extremely important part of its culture.
Mawarannahr was one of the most advanced caliphate regions playing a significant role in social and cultural life. The Great Silk Road linked the West with the Orient and people from southern and northern countries passed through this land. The Mawarannahr towns of Bukhara, Samarkand and Kunya-Urgench were the crossroads of caravan routes from India, China, Egypt, Byzantium, Slavic countries and Arabia.
The House of Wisdom called "Bite ul-Khikma" founded by an order of the caliphate ruler Makhmud engaged in the great task to translate the books of Aristotle, Plato, Archimedes and other ancient Greek scientists and philosophers from classical Greek into Arabic. The Mawarannahr's brilliant young scientists, Musa Al-Khorezmi, Akhmad Al-Fergani, Al-Marvazi, Javkhari, Marvarudi and others, performed with distinction. Baghdad became one of the world's scientific and cultural centers.
The struggle for independence and freedom from oppression by the caliphate of the Central Asian region increased during this time and by the end of 9th century the first Samanid government with Bukhara as the capital was established. This government lasted until the end of the 10th century. During the 10th-12th century period different Karakhanids, Gaz-navids, Seldjukids and Khoresm-shakhs independent states appeared in Mawarannahr and Kho-rasan. In spite of continual wars to expand spheres of influence, this period appeared to be extremely important for the cultural and scientific activity of the region. The establishment of politically independent and autonomous states gave a good start, opening up great opportunities for regional economic and cultural growth. This time in history is known as the Oriental Renaissance and is noted for the unprecedented rise of ethical regulations.
It was the right time to bring in the ripe harvest of such bright philosophers as Abu Nasr Farabi, Imam Al-Bukhari, Narshaki, Makhmud Kashghari, Marginani, Nadjimmiddin Kubro, Abu Raikhan Beruni, Abu Ali Ibn Sino, az-Zamakhshari, and outstanding poets like Rudaki, Yusuf khas Khadjib, Akhmad Yassavi and Abu Bakr al-Khorezmi.
At the same time new Islamic religious movements appeared known for their free thinking, known as Mutaziliya, Ismailiya and Sufism. The towns of Bukhara, Samarkand, Merv, Urgench and Khiva became widely popular in Muslim countries. Crafts, architecture and construction progressed rapidly. At the beginning of the 11th century under the direction of Mamun Khorezm-Shakh, a new research center was founded in Khorezm, where leading oriental scientists worked. It was later dedicated to Khorezm-Shakh and became the first academy in Central Asia.
It was the time for Mawarannahr culture and science to acquire its worldwide fame. However, this rapid growth was rudely halted at the beginning of the 13th century. The Mongols invasion of the country by Genghis Khan completely destroyed all the cities, irrigation infrastructure and sources of culture over a 2-3 period. The struggle for independence to get rid of foreign conquerors occurred during the second half of the 14th century. One of the decisive elements of the struggle was the tireless activity of Amir Timur. Step by step he cleared the area of Mawarannahr and Khorasan from Mongol rulers and at the end of 14th century and a powerful state covering a large territory was established. Timur mainly stressed the strengthening of political power and economic and cultural growth. His main principles of state management were described in the document known as "The Code of Timur". After Timur's death, the Timurids paid great attention to the promotion of art, science, and culture.
Especially during the reign of Ulugbek, Shakhrukh and Khusain Baikaro, the culture reached its peak for the period of history and the towns of Mawarannahr and Khorasan were acknowledged worldwide, not only in the Muslim Orient but also in Europe. This was at the end of the second half of Central Asian Renaissance. Those great philosophers such as Ulugbek, Kozizada Rumi, Ali Kushchi, Mirsharif Djurjani, Djami, Khoja Akhrar, Luhtfiy, Khondamihr, Bekzod, Babur and many others were recognized by the world. Alisher Navoi lived during the 15th century and created his immortal masterpieces. One of the Timurids, Ulugbek was responsible for the construction of a scientific center in Samarkand, known as The Ulugbek Academy in different literary sources.
This was a time for building monuments and cultural facilities, for rapid growth of Uzbek poetry, miniature painting, manuscript art, and the development of numerous scientific directions within astronomy, mathematics, history and medicine.
But the internecine wars became more frequent at the end of 15th century and caused the breakdown of Timurid's state by the beginning of 16th century. Conquering Turkic nomads come from the north. But at the beginning of 17th century, a great-great-great-grandson of Timur and the ruler of Fergana, Babur invaded India and established a new state known as "The Great Mogul Empire". The Timurids ruled it until the intrusion of Britain into India.
From the 17th century onwards Mawarannahr experienced deep social and economic decay. However, during this time people like Makhmudi Azim, Karabaghi, Abdulgizkhan, Turdi, Mashrab, Nodira, Uvaisiy, Gulkhani, Makhmudkuli, Berdakh and others acquired personal fame for their treatises and literary work.
During the first half of the 19th century Muhammad Rakhimkhan paid a great deal of attention to history and literature in Khorezm, this was the time of Munis, Komil Khorezmi, Agakhi, Bayani and others.
During the second half of the 19th century the life of Turkestan was filled with great social, economic and political events. In the 1860's tzarist Russia began its conquest of Turkestan.
During this period there were anti-colonial reform-minded enlightened movements that influenced the cultural and social life of Turkestan. Based on the culture of local people the enlightened movements were headed by the scientists and poets, Akhmad Donish, Furkhat, Avaz Otar and Mukimiy to name just a few. Great changes are a feature of Turkestan culture of this period.
At the end of the 19th century Djadidizm appeared based in the enlightenment movement and began to put forward new education and enlightenment, social and cultural policies. Step by step the activities and work of well-known djadids like Bekhbudi, Firtrat, Abdulla Avloni, Munnavhar Kari, Khamza and others spread widely among the people. Magazines and newspapers, books and textbooks began to appear stimulating interest in and growth of the national historical and cultural heritage. This ensured significant growth of national consciousness, political and cultural maturity and a striving for an independent way of development.
Samarkand - the Capital of Tamerlane
Samarkand is situated in the valley of the river Zarafshan. It is the second largest city of Uzbekistan and is of the same age as the city of Babylon or Rome. The history of Samarkand is about 2,500 years old and has witnessed a lot of upheavals during the times of Alexander the Great, the Arabic Conquest, Genghis-Khan Conquest and lastly Tamerlane's. Hence, the culture of Samarkand was developed and mixed together with the Iranian, Indian, Mongolian and a bit of the Western and Eastern cultures. Majestic and beautiful city Samarkand has a marvelous and attractive power. Poets and historians of the past called it "Rome of the East, The beauty of sublunary countries, The pearl of the Eastern Moslem World". Its advantageous geographical position in Zarafshan valley put Samarkand to the first place among cities of the Central Asia.
There are cities which centuries-old history embodies the history of whole nation and countries, reflecting the way passed by many generations. Such is Samarkand-one of the most ancient city in the world. As other first centers of human civilization-Babylon and Memphis, Athens and Rome, Alexandria and Byzantium-Samarkand was intended to go through rapid events and shakes. Samarkand history goes deep into thousand years. Archeological finds and annalistic proceedings of eyewitnesses and ancient historians allowed to establish with full reliability that a man had been living on the territory of modern city many thousand years ago B.C.
Special advantageous geographical location, comparatively cool climate, abundance of natural springs with fine water, “obi rahmat”-“mercy water”, nearness of mountains with large wild fowl, flowing near Zaravshan river - all these always provided favorable conditions for human settlings in that area, where strong walls, castles, majestic buildings and temples of Samarkand raised some centuries ago B.C.
In historical proceedings of ancient time the earliest mention about Samarkand-that was famous then as Marakand-related to 329th year B.C., in descriptions of eyewitnesses and participants of Alexandr Macedonian’s aggressive tours. Already at that time Samarkand was a big city with crowded population, developed crafts, trade, and culture. He had unassailable citadel and outside defensive wall about 10 and half kilometers long. With new archeological finds scientists concluded that Samarkand occurred much earlier than Greek-Macedonian winnings and already during the epoch of the state development of ahemenids (6-4 BC) was quite developed city. That is why the “age” of Samarkand amounted to round chronological data of 2500 years starting from the day of its birth on the forest hill of Afrosiab, though it is greatly older.
During its history the city saw half savage sacs and massagets on the streets, iron “flanks” of greek-macedonins, hordes of cruel karakitays, the city withstood destructive invasion of fanatic Arabic commanders-the followers of Islam religion founder Mohammed. Bloody hordes of Chigiz-han came down on its peaceful houses with fire and sword. Samarkand became the capital of World Empire ranged from Ind River to Bosfor with cruel Timur. After Timur’s death all his empire goes to the power of his children and grandchildren. Samarkand and bordered to it areas devolved to the ownership of Ulugbek, Timur’s grandson. Ulugbek ruled Samarkand during 40 years. During the whole history Uligbek was the most peace-loving ruler. He almost did not participate in aggressive campaigns over ruling his state. He visited other countries many times but only for learning traditions, culture, and customs of those countries. He was great scientist, astronomer, and mathematician; that is why he brought many scientists from different countries for science development in his government.
In reality Timur’s grandson was called Muhhmad Taragay, and his grandmother, Timur’s wife, gave Ulugbek name to him because from early childhood he was very clever boy, and Timur means “clever, talented”; that is why in history Timur’s grandson mentioned only under the name Ulugbek. Now Samarkand like most cities of Central Asia is a city divided into two parts: old and new ones. New part is an administrative part of the city where industrial and cultural centers, high educational institutions are situated. There are 5 institutes in Samarkand: medical, agricultural, architectural, cooperative, institute of foreign languages, and also State University that has 10 faculties.
Old part this is part where historical monuments, shops, small school are situated. Our entire excursion will be in the old part of the city. Population of Samarkand is about 500 thousands. This is multinational city, more that 100 nations live in Samarkand. Samarkand takes second place in Uzbekistan by number of population and territory.
Bukhara the Holy City
Bukhara is one of the most ancient cities of Uzbekistan, situated on a sacred hill, the place where sacrifices were made by fire-worshippers in springtime. This city was mentioned in a holy book "Avesto". Bukhara city is supposed to be founded in the 13th c.B.C. during reign of Siyavushids who came to power 980 years before Alexander the Great. The name of Bukhara originates from the word "vihara" which means "monastery" in Sanskrit. The city was once a large commercial center on the Great Silk Road.
Bukhara with more than 140 architectural monuments is a "town museum" dating back to the Middle Ages. 2,300 years later, ensembles like the Poi-Kalon, Kos Madras, Ismail Samani Mausoleum and the Kalian Minaret are attracting a lot of attention. The city consists of narrow streets, green parks and gardens, historical and architectural monuments belong to the different epochs, but locate very close to each other.
Ismail Samany Mausoleum
Tashkent - the Capital of Uzbekistan
In the centuries past, Tashkent, the present capital of Uzbekistan, was called Chach, Shash, Binkent at various times. Each of the names is a part of the city's history. Tashkent has always been an important international transport junction. Unfortunately, only a small part of its architectural past is preserved, due to demolition of historical and religious buildings after the revolution of 1917 and a massive earthquake in 1966. Some old buildings lie in the old town to the west of the downtown. A myriad of narrow winding alleys, it stands in sharp contrast to the more modern Tashkent. Of interest among the older buildings are the 16th century Kukeldash Madrassah, which is being restored as a museum, and the Kaffali-Shash Mausoleum. Many of the Islamic sites in Tashkent, like Khast-Imam structure, are not open to non-Muslims, and visitors should always ask permission before entering them.
Tashkent houses many museums of Uzbek and pre-Uzbek culture. These include the State Art Museum, which houses a collection of paintings, ceramics and the Bukharian royal robes. The Museum of Decorative and Applied Arts exhibits embroidered wall hangings and reproduction antique jewelry. As important historical figures, such as Amir Timur - better known as Tamerlane in the West - are being given greater prominence, the exhibits and perspective of the museums are also changing.
Tashkent, Uzbekistan - History
First information about Tashkent as city settling is in the ancient east sources of the second century before A.D. In China sources it was called Yuni; in the inscription of the year 262 before A.D. of Persian king Shampur the First on the “Caaba of Zoroastrian” Tashkent oasis was called Chach; in the transcriptions of some china sources the city also was called Shi, and in the Arabian-Shash. By the sayings of Biruniy and Mahmud Kashgariy, the name Tashkent was appeared from the Turkic sources of 9-12 centuries. In Russia in 15th century it was famous as Tashkura.
The main square of the old city market-Chorsu Square-appeared in 9th century. Trade Roads came to Chorsu from all gates, transforming to market streets. This square was transport flyover and trade place. In the 6th century Kukildosh Madrasah was built here.
Chorsu mahallya, Tikanli mazar, Chukur village were situated on the modern part of Chorsu Square. In the modern period Chorsu was reconstructed. GUM, Central City Drugstore, Chorsu Hotel and other constructions of modern architecture were built. Mahallya appeared around old squares and market streets, which in most cases were called by the activities of craftspeople.
For example, Padarkush Mahallya in Shayhantaur was called earlier “Buzchi Mahallya”, which means “block of weavers” (now it is microrayon C-13). There were others mahallyas near: on the north-Arka-Kucha, on the south-Dukchi, Zandjirlik, on the west-Pushtibag, on the east-Kudukbashi. Deroz Mahallya or Degroz in Shayhantaur got its name from “Degroz”-“founder of boilers”. Here were 20 cast-iron workshops. There was Ahunguzar mahallya in Sibzar daha, which means “block of farriers”, here were situated in big amount farrier’s workshops. And Tokli Jallob mahallya got its name because people there were trading cattle.
Since Tashkent was city of rich merchants and craftspeople big architectural buildings were mainly tied-up with constructions and design of caravanserais, mosques, and mausoleums. The earliest buildings that reached our time are mausoleums, appeared along the caravan roads, they were devoted to saint sheikhs, and they were not only the places of worship, begging luck in life and trade work, but also original landscape, decorating long boring way on the desert roads. In Tashkent City and along the routes to it remained some ten of such mausoleums.